Vision is one of the best gifts granted to us. We tend to take this for granted. When our eyesight starts giving trouble that is when we realize its value. Like exercise is essential to maintain a healthy body, the same is true for the eyes too. The eyes can be affected by many problems astigmatism, color blindness, cataract, conjunctivitis, glaucoma and various others. Many of them would have to be treated with oral medication, surgeries or other methods like use of external aids such as spectacles and contact lenses. Having said this it is also true that many types of eye problems can be avoided to a large extent by taking care of the eyes and many problems can be corrected with methods used to improve eyesight. Blessed are those who have good Eye Sight. But the others need not worry as eyesight can be improved to a certain extent by following some simple tips. Some eye exercises which would help in distressing the eyes and improve eyesight are given below:
1. Sit in an upright position and rub your palms till they become warm and then hold it against your closed eyes. This will help in relaxing the eyes. Practice deep breathing while doing this exercise. Repeat it a number of times.
2. Rolling your eyes clockwise and anti-clockwise helps the eyes. Remember to blink in between every repetition.
3. Focus on an object close to you for sometime and then look at an object that is beyond it. Now again focus on the object close by. This helps in focusing on a close object, shifting focus and then again focusing close by.
4. People who tend to watch too much of television or those who work long hours using the computer also face eye problems. It is important to look away for sometime every half and hour and focus on some object far off. This reduces the strain on the eyes.
5. A healthy diet also plays an important role in shaping your eyesight. A diet rich in Vitamin A, C and E helps in reducing the chances of contracting cataract or being affected by eye problems like macular degeneration.
If the exercises are done regularly and a balance diet is maintained one can to a large extent maintain good eyesight and improve Eye Sight that has just started giving trouble. The exercises mentioned do not consume much time and can be accommodated in any busy schedule. A little time spared for your eyes will go a long way in having good eyesight.
The retina is that portion of the innermost part of the eye which is light sensitive. The retina is like a camera as it helps in creating the image. The photoreceptor cells, cones and the rods are the ones responsible for receiving the light and this is sent to the brain through the optic nerves by transforming it into image forming signals. Actually the optic nerve can be said to be a central tract which is the connecting factor of the retina and the brain. Another important feature of the retina is that it is the only part which belongs to the central nervous system (CNS) which can be directly imaged.
The retina is made up of many layers, 10 to be precise. The different layers from the innermost to the outer one are listed below:
- Inner Limiting Membrane
- Nerve Fiber
- Ganglion Cell: the one responsible for producing the optic nerve fibers.
- Inner Plexiform Layer
- Inner Nuclear Layer
- Outer Plexiform Layer
- Outer Nuclear Layer
- External Limiting Membrane
- Photoreceptor Layer
- Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The retina is quite a complex portion of the eye. An adult’s retina is said to have a diameter of about 22 mm. the retina constitutes 72% of the entire area of a sphere. The retina is made up of 75-150 million rods and 7 million cones, figures which are even difficult to fathom. An image is created with the functioning of both the cones and the rods. The cones are the ones that react when bright light falls and decides upon high resolution and color vision whereas the rods react to dim light and arbitrate regarding lower resolution vision, night vision and also black and white vision. Cones that are sensitive to light that are green, red and blue in color are absent in certain individuals which causes color blindness problems and various other color vision deficiencies. Since humans have 3 cones as compared to other mammals which have two (they lack the red sensitive cone), the color vision of humans becomes superior. The retina functions in a truly amazing pattern by compressing the image size to fit the scope of the optic nerve.
The retina is also prone to various diseases such as macular degeneration, retinal separation, retinoblastoma and many others. There are various instruments and treatment methods available today so as to diagnose and treat these problems at the earliest. The retina is a crucial part of the eye and for good vision one would need a healthy retina lifelong.